Wednesday, 25 November 2015

Freshers Tree

Important shortcut and Formulas of Profit and Loss

Today we are sharing an important shortcut and formulas for Profit an loss. These formulas and
shortcuts will be helpful for your upcoming exams like IBPS Clerk, SSC Chsl etc.

IMPORTANT FACTS

Cost Price:

The price, at which an article is purchased, is called its cost price, abbreviated as C.P.

Selling Price:

The price, at which an article is sold, is called its selling prices, abbreviated as S.P.

Profit or Gain:

If S.P. is greater than C.P., the seller is said to have a profit or gain.

Loss:

If S.P. is less than C.P., the seller is said to have incurred a loss.

IMPORTANT FORMULAS – PROFIT AND LOSS

Cost price (CP) is the price at which an article is purchased.

Selling price (SP) is the price at which an article is sold.

If SP > CP, it is a profit or gain

If CP > SP, it is a loss.

Gain or Profit = SP – CP

Loss = CP – SP

Loss or gain is always reckoned on CP

Profit Percentage (Profit %) = Profit / CP×100=(SP – CP) / CP×100

Loss Percentage (Loss %) = Loss / CP×100=(CP – SP) / CP×100

In the case of a gain or profit,

                             SP=(100+Gain%) / 100×CP

CP=100 / (100+ Gain %)×SP

In the case of a loss,

                             SP=(100−Loss%) / 100×CP

CP=100 / (100−Loss%)×SP

If an article is sold at a gain of 20%, then SP = 120% of CP

If an article is sold at a loss of 20% then SP = 80% of CP

If an article is sold at a loss of 20% then SP = 80% of CP

If a person sells two items at the same price; one at a gain of x % and another at a loss of x %, then the seller always incurs a loss expressed as

                             Loss %=(( Common   Loss  and   Gain %) / 10)^2=(x / 10)^2

If a trader professes to sell his goods at cost price, but uses false weights, then

                             Gain%=[Error / ( True  Value – Error )×100]%


Let it understand with all the type and shortcut based on it.

Profit and Loss Based on Cost Price

To find the percent gain or loss, divide the amount gained or lost by the cost.

Example: A toy that cost 80 rupees is sold at a profit of 20 rupees. Find the percent or rate of profit.

Answer:

Gain / cost = % profit.

20/80 = 25%. – Answer

To find the loss and the selling price when the cost and the percent loss are given, multiply the cost by the percent and subtract the product from the cost.

Example: A damaged chair that cost Rs.110 was sold at a loss of 10%. Find the loss and the selling price.

Answer:

Cost x percent loss = loss.

110 x 1/10 = 11, loss.

Cost – loss = selling price.

110 – 11 = 99, selling price.

Profit and Loss Based on Selling Price

To find the profit and the cost when the selling price and the percent profit are given, multiply the selling price by the percent profit and subtract the result from the selling price.

Example: A toy is sold for Rs. 6.00 at a profit of 25% of the selling price. Separate this selling price into cost and profit.

Answer :

Selling price x % profit = profit.

Selling price = profit = cost.

6.00 x .25 = 1.50, profit.

6.00 – 1.50 = 4.50, cost.

To find the loss and the cost when the selling price and the percent loss are given, multiply the selling price by the percent loss and subtract the result from the selling price.

Example: At a sale, neckties selling at Rs. 50.00 are sold at a loss of 60% of selling price. What is the loss and the original cost?

Selling price x % loss = loss.

Selling price + loss = cost.

50.00 x .60 = 30.00, loss.

50.00 – 30.00 = 20.00, cost.

To find the selling price when the cost and the percent loss are given, add the percent loss to 100% and divide the cost by this sum.

Example: Socks that cost 7.00 per pair were sold at a loss of 25% of selling price. What was the selling price?

Answer: Cost / (100% + % loss) = selling price.

7.00 / 1.25 = 5.60, selling price.

To find the selling price when the profit and the percent profit are given, or to find the selling price when the loss and the percent loss are given, divide the profit or loss by the percent profit or loss.

Note: This rule should be compared with the one under Profit and Loss Based on Cost. The two rules are exactly similar except that in one case 100% represents cost while in the other case 100% represents selling price.

Example: A kind of tape is selling at a profit of 12% of selling price, equal to 18 per yard. What is the selling price of the tape?

Answer: Profit / % profit = selling price.

18 /.12 = 1.50 selling price.

To find the percent profit or loss, divide the amount gained or lost by the selling price.

Example: A candy bar sells for 1.30 at a profit of 65. What percent of profit on selling price does this represent?

Answer: Gain / selling price = % profit.

65 / 1.30 = .5 or 50% profit.

Mark-up Price

Generally the SP is less than the marked price (MP) the difference MP – SP is known as discount, D.

Discount = M P – S P

Discount %, D% = (Discount) / (M P) ×100

To reduce percent loss on cost to percent loss on selling price, divide percent loss on cost by 100% minus percent loss on cost.

 Example: 20% loss on cost is what percent loss on selling price?

Answer:

% loss on cost / (100% – % loss on cost) = % loss on selling price.

0.20 / 80 = .0025 or 25% loss on selling price

To reduce percent loss on selling price to percent loss on cost, divide percent loss on selling price by 100% plus percent loss on selling price.

Example: 20% loss on selling price is what percent loss on cost?

Answer:

% loss on selling price / (100% + % loss on selling price) = % loss on cost.

.20 / 1.20 = .16666 or .16.67% loss on cost.

To reduce percent mark-up (percent profit on cost) to percent profit on selling price, divide percent mark-up by 100% plus percent mark-up.

Example: A coat marked up 60% carries what percent of profit on selling price?

Answer : % profit on cost / ( 100% + % profit on cost ) = % profit on selling price.

.60 / 1.60 = .375 or 37.5% on selling price.

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